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Country-specific effects of neonicotinoid pesticides on honey bees and wild bees

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Science  30 Jun 2017:
Vol. 356, Issue 6345, pp. 1393-1395
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa1190
  • Fig. 1 Location of the 33 experimental sites in the United Kingdom, Hungary, and Germany.

    See fig. S2 for a diagrammatic representation of the experimental setup.

  • Fig. 2 Summary effect sizes for the response of honey bees and wild bees to the neonicotinoid seed treatments.

    An effect size represents the difference between the mean population response for a given seed treatment and the control within a country, with this difference divided by the pooled standard deviation, where asterisk (*) indicates a significant difference between the control and seed treatment [either TMX (thiamethoxam) or CTD (clothianidin)] determined from the predicted marginal means of the model “y ~ seed treatment × country + block/country.” Dagger (†) indicates where U.K. colony survival was too low for a formal analysis. Note that effect sizes differ between countries.

  • Fig. 3 Wild bee reproductive success in response to neonicotinoid nest residues.

    Separate graphs are shown for the response of B. terrestris queen production and O. bicornis reproductive cell production to neonicotinoid residues found in nests. The significance of these relationships is based on a likelihood ratio test comparison of H0: “y ~ country” and H1: “y ~ neonicotinoid + country.” Neonicotinoid residues are based on summed concentrations of clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid.

Supplementary Materials

  • Country-specific effects of neonicotinoid pesticides on honey bees and wild bees

    B. A.Woodcock, J. M. Bullock, R. F. Shore,M. S. Heard,M. G. Pereira, J. Redhead, L. Ridding, H. Dean, D. Sleep, P. Henrys, J. Peyton, S. Hulmes, L. Hulmes, M. Sárospataki, C. Saure, M. Edwards, E. Genersch, S. Knäbe, R. F. Pywell

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

    Download Supplement
    • Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 and S2
    • Tables S1 to S12
    • References

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