Essays on Science and SocietyNeuromodulation

Neuromodulation with nanoparticles

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Science  04 Aug 2017:
Vol. 357, Issue 6350, pp. 465
DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1200

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Current strategies for clinical neuromodulation are limited by either high invasiveness, low precision, or poor depth of penetration. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and other electrical strategies for deep brain neuromodulation necessitate the use of invasive device placement. Similarly, optogenetic interventions generally require the placement of a fiber-optic cable into the tissue for light delivery and would necessitate gene therapy. Noninvasive techniques for electrical neuromodulation, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), on the other hand, have an overly broad spatial extent and limited depth of penetration.