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Winter storms drive rapid phenotypic, regulatory, and genomic shifts in the green anole lizard

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Science  04 Aug 2017:
Vol. 357, Issue 6350, pp. 495-498
DOI: 10.1126/science.aam5512
  • Fig. 1 Distribution of collection sites along a latitudinal cline.

    (A) Collection localities. (B) Minimum daily temperatures of 1998 to 2013 (November 1 to February 28). Daily values were averaged for the 15 years before the winter of 2013–2014. (C) Percentage increase in days below the minimum thermal limits of the population at each collection site. All data are ordered by latitude from top to bottom.

  • Fig. 2 Response of cold tolerance to the extreme winter of 2013–2014.

    (A) Mean ± SEM of critical thermal minimum (CTmin) in July and August of 2013 (summer 2013), April 2014 (spring 2014), and July 2014 (summer 2014). (B) Mean ± SEM of (CTmin) during the summers of 2013 and 2014. Asterisks indicate that CTmin was significantly lower after the extreme cold event of 2013–2014.

  • Fig. 3 Expression of regulatory modules associated with latitude.

    (A to C) Associations between module expression and sampling latitude. Crosses and dots represent module expression scores from samples acclimated for 2 weeks at 20° and 30°C, respectively. (D to F) Bar plots representing the number of genes within each module that shift in expression in the southernmost population (BRO) after the storm in the same direction as gene expression differences between BRO and the northernmost site (HOD).

  • Fig. 4 Genomic scan for targets of storm-mediated selection.

    (A) Scan for genetic differentiation between lizards collected before and after the winter of 2013–2014 from BRO. Gray points represent individual values of FST for each single-nucleotide polymorphism. Black dots indicate nonsignificant FST values within 5-Mb windows (bootstrap resampling, P ≥ 0.05) in pre- versus post-storm comparisons. Blue dots indicate nonsignificant FST values within 5-Mb windows (bootstrap resampling, P ≥ 0.05) in north (HOD) versus south (BRO) comparisons. Red and green dots indicate regions of significantly elevated FST between samples (bootstrap resampling, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Black lines indicate differentially expressed genes within FST outlier peaks. (B to F) Expression differences between pre- and post-storm BRO samples at gene expression outliers. Genes shown are associated with cholinesterase activity and sodium symporter activity.

  • Winter storms drive rapid phenotypic, regulatory, and genomic shifts in the green anole lizard

    Shane C. Campbell-Staton, Zachary A. Cheviron, Nicholas Rochette, Julian Catchen, Jonathan B. Losos, Scott V. Edwards

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 to S8
    • Table S1
    • References

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