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Crystal structure of the human lysosomal mTORC1 scaffold complex and its impact on signaling

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Science  20 Oct 2017:
Vol. 358, Issue 6361, pp. 377-381
DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1583

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Structure of human mTORC1 components

The mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) complex garners much attention as a signaling hub that coordinates input from growth-factor receptors and nutrient availability with metabolism and cell growth and proliferation. de Araujo et al. report the crystal structure of the LAMTOR (or “Ragulator”) complex that helps assemble mTORC1 at the lysosomal membrane for activation. The structure and functional studies reveal how LAMTOR1 wraps around the other subunits to hold them in place and interacts with the Rag guanosine triphosphatases in the complex.

Science, this issue p. 377

Abstract

The LAMTOR [late endosomal and lysosomal adaptor and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) activator] complex, also known as “Ragulator,” controls the activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) on the lysosome. The crystal structure of LAMTOR consists of two roadblock/LC7 domain–folded heterodimers wrapped and apparently held together by LAMTOR1, which assembles the complex on lysosomes. In addition, the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) associated with the pentamer through their carboxyl-terminal domains, predefining the orientation for interaction with mTORC1. In vitro reconstitution and experiments with site-directed mutagenesis defined the physiological importance of LAMTOR1 in assembling the remaining components to ensure fidelity of mTORC1 signaling. Functional data validated the effect of two short LAMTOR1 amino acid regions in recruitment and stabilization of the Rag GTPases.

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