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Egg accumulation with 3D embryos provides insight into the life history of a pterosaur

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Science  01 Dec 2017:
Vol. 358, Issue 6367, pp. 1197-1201
DOI: 10.1126/science.aan2329
  • Fig. 1 More than 200 eggs of Hamipterus tianshanensis preserved in sandstone (IVPP V 18941 to 18943).

    Red arrows indicate eggs with embryos; green arrows indicate the position of three eggs scanned by micro-CT; the numbers of red and green arrows indicate the embryos shown in Fig. 3 and figs. S1 to S8; orange arrows indicate eggs without embryo; and the pink arrows b to f indicate the position of the eggs of Fig. 2, B to F, respectively. Scale bar, 200 mm. Abbreviation: at-ax, atlas-axis; car, carpus; cv, cervical vertebra; hu, humerus; hy, hyoid; lj, lower jaw; mcI, metacarpal I; mcIV, metacarpal IV; mt, metatarsal; pel, pelvis; phd4, indeterminate wing phalange; ph1~4d4, first to fourth phalange of manual digit IV; r, right; ra, radius; sk, skull; st, sternum.

  • Fig. 2 Eggs preserved with pterosaur bones (IVPP V 18942).

    (A) Close-up of egg concentration in Fig. 1; scale bar, 100 mm; (B to F) selected eggs indicated by pink arrows b to f in Fig. 1, showing different degrees of deformation. The red and yellow arrows indicate the fissure in the egg and the mudstone pellet, respectively. Scale bar, 20 mm.

  • Fig. 3 Eggs with embryo.

    Embryo 12 (A to D), embryo 11 (E to H), embryo 13 (I to L). (A) and (B), photo and line drawing showing all elements of embryo 12 with the lower jaw exposed in ventral view; scale bar, 10 mm. (C) Close-up of the lower jaw; scale bar, 5 mm. (D) Close-up of the anterior portion of the lower jaw in left view; scale bar, 1 mm. (E) and (F), photo and line drawing showing all elements of embryo 11; scale bar, 10 mm. (G) Close-up of scapula; scale bar, 5 mm. (H) Close-up of metacarpal IV; scale bar, 5 mm. (I) Photo of embryo 13; scale bar, 10 mm. (J) Interpretations of elements in the frame of (I), showing the position of embryo; scale bar, 10 mm. (K) Close-up of right humerus; scale bar, 2 mm (L) Close-up of left femur; scale bar, 2 mm. Abbreviations: cor, coracoid; dpc, deltopectoral crest; dv, dorsal vertebra; f, frontal; fe, femur; fo, foramen; h, head; hu, humerus; j, jugal; l, left; lj, lower jaw; mcI-IV, metacarpal I-IV; mt, metatarsal; phd4, indeterminate wing phalanx; ph1-4d4, first to fourth phalanges of manual digit IV; r, right; ra, radius; sca, scapula; ul, ulna; vt, vertebra; ?, uncertain.

  • Fig. 4 Transverse mid-diaphyseal sections of ulnae under plane-polarized light.

    (A) Ulna of embryo 2, shown in fig. S2A; (B) ulna of IVPP V 18947.7 (estimated length ~130 mm); (C) ulna of IVPP V 18947.13 (estimated length ~140 mm); (D) ulna of IVPP V 18947.12 (estimated length ~190 mm). Scale bars, 200 μm. White arrows indicate LAGs; yellow arrows indicate annuli. Abbreviations: la, lacuna; mc, medullary cavity; po, primary osteon; vc, vascular canal.

Supplementary Materials

  • Egg accumulation with 3D embryos provides insight into the life history of a pterosaur

    Xiaolin Wang, Alexander W. A. Kellner, Shunxing Jiang, Xin Cheng, Qiang Wang, Yingxia Ma, Yahefujiang Paidoula, Taissa Rodrigues, He Chen, Juliana M. Sayao, Ning Li, Jialiang Zhang, Renan A. M. Bantim, Xi Meng, Xinjun Zhang, Rui Qiu, Zhonghe Zhou

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Figs. S1 to S13 
    • Tables S1 to S5 
    • Captions for Movies S1 to S3 
    • References 

    Images, Video, and Other Media

    Movie S1
    Movie S2
    Left humerus.
    Movie S3
    Right femur.

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