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The runners-up for Science’s Breakthrough of the Year are, in no particular order of merit, the first new great ape species discovered since 1929, a banner year for cryo–electron microscopy, a cultural change in communicating biology papers, an advance in editing DNA and RNA, the approval of a drug to treat any solid cancer that has a particular mutation, recovery of 2.7-million-year-old ice from Antarctica, the oldest Homo sapiens fossils found so far, a success in gene therapy, and the observation of coherent neutrino scattering using a portable detector.