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C1q restrains autoimmunity and viral infection by regulating CD8+ T cell metabolism

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Science  04 May 2018:
Vol. 360, Issue 6388, pp. 558-563
DOI: 10.1126/science.aao4555

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Complement is a CD8+ T cell metabolic rheostat

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with deficiencies in the complement protein C1q. Although C1q plays a role in the clearance of apoptotic cells, there are several redundant clearance pathways. Disruption of one pathway does not lead to an autoimmune defect. In a chronic graft-versus-host disease model of SLE, Ling et al. show that C1q dampens CD8+ T cell responses to self-antigens. C1q modulates metabolism through the mitochondrial cell-surface protein p32/gC1qR. The lack of C1q during a viral infection also enhances CD8+ T cell responses. Thus, C1q plays a role as a “metabolic rheostat” for effector CD8+ T cells.

Science, this issue p. 558

Abstract

Deficiency of C1q, the initiator of the complement classical pathway, is associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Explaining this association in terms of abnormalities in the classical pathway alone remains problematic because C3 deficiency does not predispose to SLE. Here, using a mouse model of SLE, we demonstrate that C1q, but not C3, restrains the response to self-antigens by modulating the mitochondrial metabolism of CD8+ T cells, which can themselves propagate autoimmunity. C1q deficiency also triggers an exuberant effector CD8+ T cell response to chronic viral infection leading to lethal immunopathology. These data establish a link between C1q and CD8+ T cell metabolism and may explain how C1q protects against lupus, with implications for the role of viral infections in the perpetuation of autoimmunity.

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