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Gut microbiota utilize immunoglobulin A for mucosal colonization

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Science  18 May 2018:
Vol. 360, Issue 6390, pp. 795-800
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq0926

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Benign colonization of the gut

Microbial communities in the gut can be highly individual. What engenders this specificity? The gut characteristically produces gram quantities of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody, which is presumed to protect the gut from pathogen attack. Donaldson et al. engineered strains of Bacteroides fragilis, a common human commensal, to modify its surface capsule, which affects its ability to colonize the germ-free mouse gut. Capsule changes altered the capacity of IgA to bind to the different mutants. It seems that this commensal species exploits IgA sticking power specifically to give it a competitive edge and to promote its establishment in the gut.

Science, this issue p. 795

Abstract

The immune system responds vigorously to microbial infection while permitting lifelong colonization by the microbiome. Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. We found that a regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mice. Specific immune recognition facilitated bacterial adherence to cultured intestinal epithelial cells and intimate association with the gut mucosal surface in vivo. The IgA response was required for B. fragilis (and other commensal species) to occupy a defined mucosal niche that mediates stable colonization of the gut through exclusion of exogenous competitors. Therefore, in addition to its role in pathogen clearance, we propose that IgA responses can be co-opted by the microbiome to engender robust host-microbial symbiosis.

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