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Cavity-mediated collective spin-exchange interactions in a strontium superradiant laser

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Science  20 Jul 2018:
Vol. 361, Issue 6399, pp. 259-262
DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3102

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An atom-coupling cavity

Ensembles of atoms have emerged as powerful simulators of many-body dynamics. Engineering controllable interactions between the atoms is crucial, be it direct or through a mediator. Norcia et al. developed a flexible alternative to existing atomic simulators in a system consisting of strontium atoms placed in an optical cavity. Two atomic states connected by a clock transition each served as an effective spin, with long-range spin-exchange interactions mediated by the cavity photons. With improvements, the setup is expected to be amenable to simulating nonequilibrium quantum dynamics and to have applications in metrology.

Science, this issue p. 259

Abstract

Laser-cooled and quantum degenerate atoms are being pursued as quantum simulators and form the basis of today’s most precise sensors. A key challenge toward these goals is to understand and control coherent interactions between the atoms. We observe long-range exchange interactions mediated by an optical cavity, which manifest as tunable spin-spin interactions on the pseudo spin-½ system composed of the millihertz linewidth clock transition in strontium. This leads to one-axis twisting dynamics, the emergence of a many-body energy gap, and gap protection of the optical coherence against certain sources of decoherence. Our observations will aid in the future design of versatile quantum simulators and the next generation of atomic clocks that use quantum correlations for enhanced metrology.

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