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Three-dimensional genome structures of single diploid human cells

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Science  31 Aug 2018:
Vol. 361, Issue 6405, pp. 924-928
DOI: 10.1126/science.aat5641

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The structure of the genome

Beyond the sequence of the genome, its three-dimensional structure is important in regulating gene expression. To understand cell-to-cell variation, the structure needs to be understood at a single-cell level. Chromatin conformation capture methods have allowed characterization of genome structure in haploid cells. Now, Tan et al. report a method called Dip-C that allows them to reconstruct the genome structures of single diploid human cells. Their examination of different cell types highlights the tissue dependence of three-dimensional genome structures.

Science, this issue p. 924

Abstract

Three-dimensional genome structures play a key role in gene regulation and cell functions. Characterization of genome structures necessitates single-cell measurements. This has been achieved for haploid cells but has remained a challenge for diploid cells. We developed a single-cell chromatin conformation capture method, termed Dip-C, that combines a transposon-based whole-genome amplification method to detect many chromatin contacts, called META (multiplex end-tagging amplification), and an algorithm to impute the two chromosome haplotypes linked by each contact. We reconstructed the genome structures of single diploid human cells from a lymphoblastoid cell line and from primary blood cells with high spatial resolution, locating specific single-nucleotide and copy number variations in the nucleus. The two alleles of imprinted loci and the two X chromosomes were structurally different. Cells of different types displayed statistically distinct genome structures. Such structural cell typing is crucial for understanding cell functions.

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