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Ultrafast electro-optic light with subcycle control

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Science  28 Sep 2018:
Vol. 361, Issue 6409, pp. 1358-1363
DOI: 10.1126/science.aat6451

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Making ultrafast cycles of light

The ability to generate coherent optical frequency combs has had a huge impact on precision metrology, imaging, and sensing applications. On closer inspection, the broadband “white light” generated through the interaction of femtosecond mode-locked laser pulses is composed of billions or trillions of precisely spaced wavelengths of light. Carlson et al. demonstrate an alternative to the mode-locked laser approach—the electro-optic modulation of a continuous-wave laser light source can also generate optical frequency combs (see the Perspective by Torres-Company). The electro-optic modulation techniques can operate at much higher repetition rates than mode-locked lasers, which means they could potentially yield even more precise measurements.

Science, this issue p. 1358; see also p. 1316

Abstract

Light sources that are ultrafast and ultrastable enable applications like timing with subfemtosecond precision and control of quantum and classical systems. Mode-locked lasers have often given access to this regime, by using their high pulse energies. We demonstrate an adaptable method for ultrastable control of low-energy femtosecond pulses based on common electro-optic modulation of a continuous-wave laser light source. We show that we can obtain 100-picojoule pulse trains at rates up to 30 gigahertz and demonstrate sub–optical cycle timing precision and useful output spectra spanning the near infrared. Our source enters the few-cycle ultrafast regime without mode locking, and its high speed provides access to nonlinear measurements and rapid transients.

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