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LZTR1 is a regulator of RAS ubiquitination and signaling

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Science  07 Dec 2018:
Vol. 362, Issue 6419, pp. 1171-1177
DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8210

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Regulation of RAS by ubiquitination

The protein LZTR1 is mutated in human cancers and developmental diseases. Work from two groups now converges to implicate the protein in regulating signaling by the small guanosine triphosphatase RAS. Steklov et al. showed that mice haploinsufficient for LZTR1 recapitulated aspects of the human disease Noonan syndrome. Their biochemical studies showed that LZTR1 associated with RAS. LZTR1 appears to function as an adaptor that promotes ubiquitination of RAS, thus inhibiting its signaling functions. Bigenzahn et al. found LZTR1 in a screen for proteins whose absence led to resistance to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors used to treat cancers caused by the BCR-ABL oncogene product. Their biochemical studies and genetic studies in fruitflies also showed that loss of LZTR1 led to increased activity of RAS and signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

Science, this issue p. 1177, p. 1171

Abstract

In genetic screens aimed at understanding drug resistance mechanisms in chronic myeloid leukemia cells, inactivation of the cullin 3 adapter protein-encoding leucine zipper-like transcription regulator 1 (LZTR1) gene led to enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activity and reduced sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Knockdown of the Drosophila LZTR1 ortholog CG3711 resulted in a Ras-dependent gain-of-function phenotype. Endogenous human LZTR1 associates with the main RAS isoforms. Inactivation of LZTR1 led to decreased ubiquitination and enhanced plasma membrane localization of endogenous KRAS (V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog). We propose that LZTR1 acts as a conserved regulator of RAS ubiquitination and MAPK pathway activation. Because LZTR1 disease mutations failed to revert loss-of-function phenotypes, our findings provide a molecular rationale for LZTR1 involvement in a variety of inherited and acquired human disorders.

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