Research Article

Two distinct interstitial macrophage populations coexist across tissues in specific subtissular niches

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Science  15 Mar 2019:
Vol. 363, Issue 6432, eaau0964
DOI: 10.1126/science.aau0964

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Tissue macrophages have a split personality

Resident tissue macrophages (RTMs) reside in various tissue-specific niches during development. They evince microenvironment-directed phenotypes that support host defense and tissue homeostasis. Chakarov et al. used single-cell RNA sequencing and fate-mapping of murine lung RTMs to interrogate RTM-subset heterogeneity, interrelationships, and ontogeny (see the Perspective by Mildner and Yona). In addition to alveolar macrophages, they identified two different interstitial macrophage populations. One population mostly abutted nerve fibers; the other population preferentially localized near blood vessels and appeared to support vessel integrity and inhibit inflammatory cell infiltration into tissues.

Science, this issue p. eaau0964; see also p. 1154

Structured Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Resident tissue macrophages (RTMs) are a heterogeneous population of immune cells occupying multiple tissue niches and exhibiting microenvironment-specific phenotypes and functions. In certain tissues such as the brain, lung, and liver, embryonically derived RTMs maintain themselves by self-renewal, whereas others, including those in the gut, dermis, and pancreas, are replaced by monocytes, at levels that are tissue specific. Once they arrive in their tissue of residence, monocytes undergo extensive differentiation according to molecular cues provided by their distinct tissue-specific niches, enabling their development into specialized RTMs that support local tissue function.

RATIONALE

As a result of this ontogenetic and tissue niche heterogeneity, each tissue contains multiple populations of macrophages. For example, in the murine lung, alveolar macrophages are the major embryonically derived population in the alveolar spaces, whereas a minor population named interstitial macrophages (IMs) resides within the lung parenchyma. Previous results reported several phenotypically distinct IM subpopulations, whose relationship remained unknown. Do they represent independent populations or, rather, different points on the spectrum of maturation and activation states? How do these differences relate to their localization in tissue or roles in tissue function in health and disease? Does such macrophage heterogeneity also exist in other tissues?

RESULTS

Here, using single-cell mRNA sequencing, we unbiasedly identified two independent populations exhibiting distinct gene expression profiles and phenotypes: Lyve1loMHCIIhiCX3CR1hi (Lyve1loMHCIIhi) and Lyve1hiMHCIIloCX3CR1lo (Lyve1hiMHCIIlo) RTMs. We uncovered evidence of parallel populations in multiple others tissues, including the heart, fat, and dermis, as well as in human lung and omental and subcutaneous fat tissues, suggesting that a similar dichotomy is observed in human tissues.

We further demonstrated that both populations are slowly replaced by Ly6Chi monocytes. Importantly, using complementary fate-mapping models, we showed that monocyte-derived RTMs (MRTMs) are two separate lineages, rather than representing points along a developmental or maturation continuum. Notably, these distinct MRTM populations preferentially reside within different, but conserved, subtissular niches, located either adjacent to nerve bundles and fibers (Lyve1loMHCIIhi) or blood vessels (Lyve1hiMHCIIlo) across tissues.

Finally, by acutely depleting Lyve1hiMHCIIlo MRTMs using a mouse model of inducible macrophage depletion during the induction of fibrosis, we found that the absence of Lyve1hiMHCIIlo IMs exacerbated experimental lung and heart fibrosis, demonstrating their critical role in tissue inflammation.

CONCLUSION

Two independent MRTMs populations exist across tissues with specific niche-dependent phenotype and functional programming. Their different roles in homeostasis, immune regulation, and fibrosis renders them attractive and separate cellular targets for the therapeutic exploitation of RTM subsets.

Two independent populations of MRTMs exist across most tissues in steady state with conserved specific subtissular niche-dependent phenotype.

(Top) Lyve1loMHCIIhi are mostly located adjacent to nerves, wherease Lyve1hiMHCIIlo preferentially reside alongside blood vessels. CX3CR1, fractalkine receptor; MHCII, major histocompatibility complex class II; IL-10, interleukin 10; CD206, mannose receptor. (Bottom) Depletion of Lyve1hiMHCIIlo MRTMs in a model of lung fibrosis exacerbated vessel permeability, immune cell infiltration, and collagen deposition, demonstrating their critical role in restraining inflammation and fibrosis. DC, dendritic cell.

Abstract

Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population involved in tissue homeostasis, inflammation, and various pathologies. Although the major tissue-resident macrophage populations have been extensively studied, interstitial macrophages (IMs) residing within the tissue parenchyma remain poorly defined. Here we studied IMs from murine lung, fat, heart, and dermis. We identified two independent IM subpopulations that are conserved across tissues: Lyve1loMHCIIhiCX3CR1hi (Lyve1loMHCIIhi) and Lyve1hiMHCIIloCX3CR1lo (Lyve1hiMHCIIlo) monocyte-derived IMs, with distinct gene expression profiles, phenotypes, functions, and localizations. Using a new mouse model of inducible macrophage depletion (Slco2b1flox/DTR), we found that the absence of Lyve1hiMHCIIlo IMs exacerbated experimental lung fibrosis. Thus, we demonstrate that two independent populations of IMs coexist across tissues and exhibit conserved niche-dependent functional programming.

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