Research Article

Structures of human Nav1.7 channel in complex with auxiliary subunits and animal toxins

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Science  22 Mar 2019:
Vol. 363, Issue 6433, pp. 1303-1308
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw2493

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Targeting sodium channels

Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels have been implicated in cardiac and neurological disorders. There are many subtypes of these channels, making it challenging to develop specific therapeutics. A core α subunit is sufficient for voltage sensing and ion conductance, but function is modulated by β subunits and by natural toxins that can either act as pore blockers or gating modifiers (see the Perspective by Chowdhury and Chanda). Shen et al. present the structures of Nav1.7 in complex with both β1 and β2 subunits and with animal toxins. Pan et al. present the structure of Nav1.2 bound to β2 and a toxic peptide, the µ-conotoxin KIIIA. The structure shows why KIIIA is specific for Nav1.2. These and other recently determined Nav structures provide a framework for targeted drug development.

Science, this issue p. 1303, p. 1309; see also p. 1278

Abstract

Voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 represents a promising target for pain relief. Here we report the cryo–electron microscopy structures of the human Nav1.7-β1-β2 complex bound to two combinations of pore blockers and gating modifier toxins (GMTs), tetrodotoxin with protoxin-II and saxitoxin with huwentoxin-IV, both determined at overall resolutions of 3.2 angstroms. The two structures are nearly identical except for minor shifts of voltage-sensing domain II (VSDII), whose S3-S4 linker accommodates the two GMTs in a similar manner. One additional protoxin-II sits on top of the S3-S4 linker in VSDIV. The structures may represent an inactivated state with all four VSDs “up” and the intracellular gate closed. The structures illuminate the path toward mechanistic understanding of the function and disease of Nav1.7 and establish the foundation for structure-aided development of analgesics.

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