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Frequent Mutation of BAP1 in Metastasizing Uveal Melanomas

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Science  04 Nov 2010:
1194472
DOI: 10.1126/science.1194472

Abstract

Metastasis is a defining feature of malignant tumors and is the most common cause of cancer-related death, yet the genetics of metastasis are poorly understood. We used massively parallel exome sequencing coupled with Sanger resequencing to search for metastasis-related mutations in highly metastatic uveal melanomas of the eye. Inactivating somatic mutations were identified in the gene encoding BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) on chromosome 3p21.1 in 26 of 31 (84%) metastasizing tumors, including 15 mutations causing premature protein termination and six affecting its ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase (UCH) domains. One tumor harbored a frameshift mutation that was germline in origin, thus representing a susceptibility allele. These findings implicate loss of BAP1 in uveal melanoma metastasis and suggest that the BAP1 pathway may be a valuable therapeutic target.