Chlorinated Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes with High Work Function for Organic Device Compatibility

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Science  14 Apr 2011:
DOI: 10.1126/science.1202992


In organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), a stack of multiple organic layers facilitates charge flow from the low work function [~4.7 electron volts (eV)] of the transparent electrode [tin-doped indium oxide (ITO)] to the deep energy-levels (~6 eV) of the active light-emitting organic materials. We demonstrate a chlorinated ITO transparent electrode with a work function of >6.1 eV that provides a direct match to the energy-levels of the active light-emitting materials in state-of-the-art OLEDs. A highly simplified green OLED with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 54% and power efficiency of 230 lumens per watt using out-coupling enhancement was demonstrated, as were EQE of 50% and power efficiency of 110 lumens per watt at 10,000 candela per square meter.