Supplementary Materials

Detecting Causality in Complex Ecosystems

George Sugihara, Robert May, Hao Ye, Chih-hao Hsieh, Ethan Deyle, Michael Fogarty, Stephan Munch

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Figs. S1 to S5
  • GC Calculations S1 to S5
  • Tables S1 to S26
  • Box S1
  • Legends for movies S1 to S3
  • References

Images, Video, and Other Other Media

Movie S1
This movie demonstrates the relationship between time series and dynamic attractors (manifolds, M).
Movie S2
This movie illustrates how Takens' Theorem (19) can be used to reconstruct a shadow manifold MX from a single time series, and illustrates the 1:1 mapping between M and MX.
Movie S3
This movie explains how convergent cross mapping (CCM) estimates states across variables.