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Cyclic GMP-AMP Is an Endogenous Second Messenger in Innate Immune Signaling by Cytosolic DNA

Science  20 Dec 2012:

DOI: 10.1126/science.1229963

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Abstract

Cytosolic DNA induces type I interferons and other cytokines that are important for antimicrobial defense but can also result in autoimmunity. This DNA signaling pathway requires the adaptor protein STING and the transcription factor IRF3, but the mechanism of DNA sensing is unclear. Here, we showed that mammalian cytosolic extracts synthesized cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) in vitro from ATP and GTP in the presence of DNA but not RNA. DNA transfection or DNA virus infection of mammalian cells also triggered cGAMP production. cGAMP bound to STING, leading to the activation of IRF3 and induction of interferon-β. Thus, cGAMP represents the first cyclic di-nucleotide in metazoa and it functions as an endogenous second messenger that triggers interferon production in response to cytosolic DNA.

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