Research Article

Reaching the Magnetic Anisotropy Limit of a 3d Metal Atom

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Science  08 May 2014:
1252841
DOI: 10.1126/science.1252841

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Abstract

Designing systems with large magnetic anisotropy is critical to realize nanoscopic magnets. Thus far, the magnetic anisotropy energy per atom in single molecule magnets and ferromagnetic films remains typically one to two orders of magnitude below the theoretical limit imposed by the atomic spin-orbit interaction. Here we realize the maximum magnetic anisotropy for a 3d transition metal atom by coordinating a single Co atom to the O site of an MgO(100) surface. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy reveals a record high zero-field splitting of 58 millielectron volts as well as slow relaxation of the Co atom's magnetization. This striking behavior originates from the dominating axial ligand field at the O adsorption site, which leads to out-of-plane uniaxial anisotropy while preserving the gas-phase orbital moment of Co (2.9 Bohr magnetons), as observed by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

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