Nlrp6 regulates intestinal antiviral innate immunity

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Science  22 Oct 2015:
DOI: 10.1126/science.aab3145

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The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptor (Nlrp) 6 maintains gut microbiota homeostasis and regulates antibacterial immunity. We now report a role for Nlrp6 in the control of enteric virus infection. Nlrp6−/− and control mice systemically challenged with encephalomyocarditis virus had similar mortality; however, the gastrointestinal tract of Nlrp6−/− mice exhibited increased viral loads. Nlrp6−/− mice orally infected with encephalomyocarditis virus had increased mortality and viremia compared to controls. Similar results were observed with murine norovirus 1. Nlrp6 bound viral RNA via the RNA helicase Dhx15 and interacted with Mavs to induce type I/III interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These data demonstrate that Nlrp6 functions with Dhx15 as a viral RNA sensor to induce ISGs, and this effect is especially important in the intestinal tract.

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