ReportReprogramming

Conversion of human fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes by small molecules

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Science  28 Apr 2016:
aaf1502
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1502

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Abstract

Reprogramming somatic fibroblasts into alternative lineages would provide a promising source of cells for regenerative therapy. However, transdifferentiating human cells to specific homogeneous, functional cell types is challenging. Here we show that cardiomyocyte-like cells can be generated by treating human fibroblasts with a combination of nine compounds (9C). The chemically induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (ciCMs) uniformly contracted and resembled human cardiomyocytes in their transcriptome, epigenetic, and electrophysiological properties. 9C treatment of human fibroblasts resulted in a more open-chromatin conformation at key heart developmental genes, enabling their promoters/enhancers to bind effectors of major cardiogenic signals. When transplanted into infarcted mouse hearts, 9C-treated fibroblasts were efficiently converted to ciCMs. This pharmacological approach for lineage-specific reprogramming may have many important therapeutic implications after further optimization to generate mature cardiac cells.

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