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Mismatch-repair deficiency predicts response of solid tumors to PD-1 blockade

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Science  08 Jun 2017:
eaan6733
DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6733

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Abstract

The genomes of cancers deficient in mismatch repair (MMR) contain exceptionally high numbers of somatic mutations. In a proof-of-concept study, we previously showed that colorectal cancers with MMR deficiency were sensitive to immune checkpoint blockade with anti-PD-1 antibodies. We have expanded this study to now evaluate efficacy of PD-1 blockade in patients with advanced MMR-deficient cancers across 12 different tumor types. Objective radiographic responses were observed in 53% of patients and complete responses were achieved in 21% of patients. Responses were durable with median progression-free and overall survival still not reached. Functional analysis in a responding patient demonstrated rapid in vivo expansion of neoantigen-specific T cell clones that were reactive to mutant neopeptides found in the tumor. These data support the hypothesis that the large proportion of mutant neoantigens in MMR-deficient cancers make them sensitive to immune checkpoint blockade, regardless of the cancers’ tissue of origin.

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