Research ArticleELECTROCHEMISTRY

Liquefied gas electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices

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Science  15 Jun 2017:
eaal4263
DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4263

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Abstract

Electrochemical capacitors and Li-ion batteries have seen little change in their electrolyte chemistry since their commercialization which has limited improvements in device performance. Combining superior physical and chemical properties and a high dielectric-fluidity factor, the use of electrolytes based on solvent systems which exclusively use components which are typically gaseous under standard conditions show a wide potential window of stability and excellent performance over an extended temperature range. Electrochemical capacitors using difluoromethane show outstanding performance from -78 to +65°C with an increased operation voltage. The use of fluoromethane shows a high coulombic efficiency of ca. 97% for cycling lithium metal anodes, together with good cyclability of a 4 V lithium cobalt oxide cathode and operation as low as -60°C with excellent capacity retention.

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