Research Article

Rewritable multi-event analog recording in bacterial and mammalian cells

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Science  15 Feb 2018:
eaap8992
DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8992

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Abstract

We present two CRISPR-mediated analog multi-event recording apparatus (CAMERA) systems that use base editors and Cas9 nucleases to record cellular events in bacteria and mammalian cells. The devices record signal amplitude or duration as changes in the ratio of mutually exclusive DNA sequences (CAMERA 1), or as single-base modifications (CAMERA 2). We achieved recording of multiple stimuli in bacteria or mammalian cells, including exposure to antibiotics, nutrients, viruses, light, and changes in Wnt signaling. When recording to multi-copy plasmids, reliable readout requires as few as 10-100 cells. The order of stimuli can be recorded through an overlapping guide RNA design and memories can be erased and re-recorded over multiple cycles. CAMERA systems serve as “cell data recorders” that write a history of endogenous or exogenous signaling events into permanent DNA sequence modifications in living cells.

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