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All-optical machine learning using diffractive deep neural networks

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Science  26 Jul 2018:
eaat8084
DOI: 10.1126/science.aat8084

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Abstract

Deep learning has been transforming our ability to execute advanced inference tasks using computers. We introduce a physical mechanism to perform machine learning by demonstrating an all-optical Diffractive Deep Neural Network (D2NN) architecture that can implement various functions following the deep learning-based design of passive diffractive layers that work collectively. We create 3D-printed D2NNs that implement classification of images of handwritten digits and fashion products as well as the function of an imaging lens at terahertz spectrum. Our all-optical deep learning framework can perform, at the speed of light, various complex functions that computer-based neural networks can implement, and will find applications in all-optical image analysis, feature detection and object classification, also enabling new camera designs and optical components that perform unique tasks using D2NNs.

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