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Abstract
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Allelopathy and Exotic Plant Invasion: From Molecules and Genes to Species Interactions
Harsh P. Bais, Ramarao Vepachedu, Simon Gilroy, Ragan M. Callaway, and Jorge M. Vivanco

Supporting Online Material

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This supplement contains:

1. Materials and Methods
2. Figs. S1 to S10
3. Table S1
4. References

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  • Movie S1
    Effect of (-)-catechin on A. thaliana roots. Bright-field images were taken every 30 s using a 10x, 0.25 numerical aperture objective, 543 nm illumination from a He-Ne laser and the transmission detector of a Zeiss LSM 410 confocal microscope attached to an axiovert inverted microscope. Note the wave of cytoplasmic condensation (darkening) initiating in the meristem and central elongation zones. Total duration of movie, 30 mins. (-)-catechin (100 Greek Letter Mug ml�1) was added at 0 min. Scale bar represents 200 Greek Letter Mum.
  • Movie S2
    Effect of (-)-catechin on C. diffusa roots. Bright-field images were taken every 30 s using a 10x, 0.25 numerical aperture objective, 543 nm illumination from a He-Ne laser and the transmission detector of a Zeiss LSM 410 confocal microscope attached to an axiovert inverted microscope. Note the wave of cytoplasmic condensation initiating in the root tip and traveling backwards up the stele of the root. Total duration of movie, 30 min. (-)-catechin (100 Greek Letter Mug ml-1) was added at 0 min. Scale bar represents 300 Greek Letter Mum.
  • Movie S3
    (-)-Catechin causes root hairs to burst in A. thaliana roots. Bright-field images were taken every 30 s using a 40x, 0.75 numerical aperture objective, 543 nm illumination from a He-Ne laser and the transmission detector of a Zeiss LSM 410 confocal microscope attached to an axiovert inverted microscope. Note that root hairs elongate, but tip growing hairs burst approximately 10 min after (-)-catechin (100 Greek Letter Mug ml-1) application. Total duration of movie, 30 min. (-)-catechin was added at 20 min. Scale bar represents 20 Greek Letter Mum.
  • Movie S4
    Effect of (-)-catechin on C. maculosa roots. Bright-field images were taken every 30 s using a 40x, 0.75 numerical aperture objective, 543 nm illumination from a He-Ne laser and the transmission detector of a Zeiss LSM 410 confocal microscope attached to an axiovert inverted microscope. Note that the root continues to grow and is apparently unaffected by the (-)-catechin (100 Greek Letter Mug ml-1) added at 0 mins. Total duration of movie, 30 min. Scale bar represents 30 Greek Letter Mum.
  • Movie S5
    Effect of (-)-catechin on ROS wave generation in roots of A. thaliana. An Arabidopsis root was loaded with the fluorescent ROS sensing dye 6-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate- di(acetoxymethly ester) (CDCDHFDA). CDCDHFDA is taken up and retained by plant cells. Its oxidation by ROS yields the fluorescent DCF. Thus, increasing fluorescence is an indication of elevated ROS production. Fluorescence images were taken every 60 s using a 40x, 0.75 numerical aperture objective, 488 nm illumination and 520-560 nm emission using a Zeiss LSM 410 confocal microscope attached to an axiovert inverted microscope. Note a wave of ROS production can be first be seen in the meristematic region and then progressing back-along the root to the central elongation zone, and then on to the more mature regions of the root. (-)-Catechin (100 Greek Letter Mug ml-1) was added at 0 min. Total duration of movie, 30 min. Scale bar represents 30 Greek Letter Mum.