Supporting Online Material

Sphagnum Moss Disperses Spores with Vortex Rings
Dwight L. Whitaker and Joan Edwards

Supporting Online Material

This supplement contains:
Materials and Methods
Fig. S1

This file is in Adobe Acrobat PDF format.

Other Supporting Online Material for this manuscript includes the following:

Movie s1
Overall view of spore launch by a Sphagnum magellanicum capsule (Recorded at 250 fps; displayed at 15 fps). The vortex bubble is the bright vertical streak moving rapidly upwards leaving a streak of spores in its wake. The cap is visible moving to the left shortly after the explosion. A small proportion of the spores adhere to one another and are visible falling near the end of the video with relatively high terminal velocity, but as reported by Sundberg (S10), at the time of explosion, the majority (73±13%) of particles in the spore cloud are single spores. Slower eddies formed by the turbulent wake of the vortex bubble hold spores aloft after they leave the bubble. Spores are launched to a maximum height of 143 mm.

Movie s2
Explosion of a Sphagnum palustre capsule . (Recorded at 10,000 fps with a 0.097 ms exposure; displayed at 15 fps.) A clear "mushroom cloud" vortex ring forms and reaches a nearly fixed width within 0.5 ms. Spores are carried upward within the vortex ring and its wake. At this exposure, the mushroom cloud has some motional blurring compared to the images shown in Fig. 1D. and Movie S3, which were captured with a shorter exposure time.

Movie s3
Explosion of the Sphagnum capsule shown in Fig. 1D. (Recorded at 10,000 fps with a 0.020 ms exposure; displayed at 15 fps.) The vortex bubble and trailing wake are visible. The spores in the wake move upwards at a slower rate than those in the bubble. The vortex overtakes and moves past the cap.

Movie s4
Explosion of a Sphagnum capsule . (Recorded at 100,000 fps with a 0.007 ms exposure; displayed at 15 fps.) The spores concentrate from a cylindrical shape in the capsule to a thin vortex bubble indicated by the bright orange band only 0.3 mm wide

To view these movies, download a QuickTime viewer.