Supplementary Materials

Artificial Muscles from Fishing Line and Sewing Thread

Carter S. Haines, Márcio D. Lima, Na Li, Geoffrey M. Spinks, Javad Foroughi, John D. W. Madden, Shi Hyeong Kim, Shaoli Fang, Mônica Jung de Andrade, Fatma Göktepe, Özer Göktepe, Seyed M. Mirvakili, Sina Naficy, Xavier Lepró, Jiyoung Oh, Mikhail E. Kozlov, Seon Jeong Kim, Xiuru Xu, Benjamin J. Swedlove, Gordon G. Wallace, Ray H. Baughman

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Supplementary Text
  • Figs. S1 to S13
  • Tables S1 and S2
  • References (29–31)
  • Captions for Movies S1 to S8

Images, Video, and Other Other Media

Movie S1
Coiling of a 305 µm nylon 6,6 monofilament sewing thread by twist insertion. After the initial coil is nucleated, twist insertion causes coils to propagate outwards from the nucleation site.
Movie S2
Thermal actuation of homochiral and heterochiral coiled muscles made by coiling 860 µm diameter nylon 6 monofilament fishing line around a mandrel. When heated, the homochiral muscle produces 49% tensile contraction, whereas the heterochiral muscle produces 67% tensile expansion.
Movie S3
Hydrothermal actuation of a coiled 860 µm diameter nylon 6 fishing line to lift a 500 g weight by 12% stroke, and hydrothermal actuation of a coiled polyethylene muscle to lift a 7.2 kg weight by 4.8% stroke at 2 Hz.
Movie S4
High-speed electrothermal actuation of a two-ply, coiled, silver-plated 180 µm diameter nylon 6,6 multifilament muscle in water. Passive cooling allows a 100 g load to be lifted at 5 Hz by 10% stroke.
Movie S5
An actuating textile woven from coiled 450 µm nylon 6 monofilament muscles in the warp direction and silver-plated heating elements and other passive fibers in the weft direction. Electrothermal heating lifts a 3 kg load by 17.6% stroke.
Movie S6
Thermal actuation of a braid woven from 32 lengths of two-ply, coiled 102 µm diameter nylon 6,6 monofilament. During heating between 20 and 120 °C the braid lifts 630 g by 16.4% stroke to cause a 20.6% change in pore area.
Movie S7
An electrothermally-powered "breathing" textile driven by inserting a two-ply, coiled 430 µm diameter silver-plated nylon 6,6 muscle inside a conventional braid. Electrothermal heating drives a porosity change of the braid.
Movie S8
A window shutter electrothermally driven by a coiled, silver-plated nylon 6,6 sewing thread muscle. Such shutters may be driven by ambient temperature changes to self-regulate the temperature inside a building or greenhouse.