Escape and Avoidance Conditioning in Human Subjects without Their Observation of the Response

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Science  13 Nov 1959:
Vol. 130, Issue 3385, pp. 1338-1339
DOI: 10.1126/science.130.3385.1338


An invisibly small thumb-twitch increased in rate of occurrence when it served, via electromyographic amplification, to terminate or postpone aversive noise stimulation. Subjects remained ignorant of their behavior and its effect. Their cumulative response curves resembled those obtained in similar work with animals. Other subjects, informed of the effective response, could not produce it deliberately in a size small enough to qualify for reinforcement.

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