Earth's Bow Shock: Elapsed-Time Observations by Two Closely Spaced Satellites

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Science  22 Nov 1968:
Vol. 162, Issue 3856, pp. 898-901
DOI: 10.1126/science.162.3856.898


Coordinated observations of the earth's bow shock were made as Vela 3A and Explorer 33 passed within 6 earth radii of each other. Elapsed time measurements of shock motion give directly determined velocities in the range 1 to 10 kilometers per second and establish the existence of two regions, one of large amplitude magnetic "shock" oscillations and another of smaller, sunward, upstream oscillations. Each region is as thick as 1 earth radius, or more.

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