Environmental Temperatures of Tertiary Penguins

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Science  14 Feb 1969:
Vol. 163, Issue 3868, pp. 673-675
DOI: 10.1126/science.163.3868.673


Marine paleotemperatures, determined by oxygen isotope measurement, show that Australasian Tertiary penguins, including giant forms, lived in warm to tropical environments. Evolution from smaller species also occurred in warm environments. Mid-Tertiary fluctuations of sea temperature were controlled by alternating uplift and erosion of "Tasmantis," an unstable meridional landmass occupying and extending beyond the present position of New Zealand.

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