Parallel Evoluton in Lichen-Forming Fungi

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Science  13 Apr 1973:
Vol. 180, Issue 4082, pp. 196-198
DOI: 10.1126/science.180.4082.196


The asexual lichen-forming fungus Parmelia hypotropa has two common chemical races that differ sharply in biogeography and niche characteristics and appear to have been derived by morphologic parallelism from chemically identical races of the closely related Parmelia perforata, which is sexual. Among the lichen fungi many chemically variable asexual morphs, which conventional taxonomies treat as species, are probably polyphyletic like Parmelia hypotropa.