The melatonin in urine samples from six healthy adult volunteers was concentrated on Amberlite XAD-2 resin, eluted with organic solvents, and quantitated by use of a bioassay technique (the dermal melanaphore response of larval anurans to melatonin in their bathing medium). The melatonin content of samples collected between 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. was, in each case, several times higher than that of samples collected between 7 a.m. and 3 p.m. or between 3 p.m. and 11 p.m.