Brain wave components of the contingent negative variation in humans

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Science  12 Mar 1976:
Vol. 191, Issue 4231, pp. 1055-1057
DOI: 10.1126/science.1251217


In a contingent negative variation paradigm with two stimuli paired at an interstimulus interval of 4 seconds, two distinct waveforms having functional and topographic differences are observed. An early wave is maximal over the frontal cortex and is elicited by the warning stimulus. A later wave, maximal over the motor cortex, precedes the imperative stimulus and is identified with preparation for motor response.