Both positive reinforcement and conditioned aversion from amphetamine and from apomorphine in rats

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Science  26 Mar 1976:
Vol. 191, Issue 4233, pp. 1273-1275
DOI: 10.1126/science.1257748


Rats learned to press a lever for intravenous injections of amphetamine or apomorphine. They also learned to avoid the taste of saccharin which was associated with experimenter-administered amphetamine or with self-administered apomorphine. Thus these, and presumably other, self-administered drugs serve as compound pharmacological stimuli, having both positively reinforcing and aversive properties.