Martian North Pole Summer Temperatures: Dirty Water Ice

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Science  17 Dec 1976:
Vol. 194, Issue 4271, pp. 1341-1344
DOI: 10.1126/science.194.4271.1341


Broadband thermal and reflectance observations of the martian north polar region in late summer yield temperatures for the residual polar cap near 205 K with albedos near 43 percent. The residual cap and several outlying smaller deposits are water ice with included dirt; there is no evidence for any permanent carbon dioxide polar cap.