Terrestrial locomotion in penguins: it costs more to waddle

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Science  11 Feb 1977:
Vol. 195, Issue 4278, pp. 592-594
DOI: 10.1126/science.835018


The energetic cost for walking is relatively higher for penguins than for other birds or for quadrupeds of similar body mass. The morphology of penguins seems to represent a compromise between aquatic and terrestrial locomotion wherein both energy economy and speed suffer when the birds move on land.

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