Quarks with Unit Charge: A Search for Anomalous Hydrogen

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Science  29 Apr 1977:
Vol. 196, Issue 4289, pp. 521-523
DOI: 10.1126/science.196.4289.521


Quarks of charge +1 and other anomalous hydrogen have been sought by using the 88-inch cyclotron at Berkeley as a high-energy mass spectrometer, with natural hydrogen and deuterium as the sources of ions. No quarks were observed, and limits were placed on their ratio to protons on the earth that vary from < 2 x 10–19for high masses (3 to 8.2 atomic mass units) to 10–13 for the lowest masses (< ⅓ atomic mass unit).