Birth order and intellectual development: the confluence model in the light of cross-cultural evidence

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Science  24 Jun 1977:
Vol. 196, Issue 4297, pp. 1470-1472
DOI: 10.1126/science.867047


For Israeli eighth-grade students of Asian-African origin, achievement decreases as a function of birth order in small families and increases as a function of birth order in large families. This finding cannot be accounted for by differences in developmental rate or size of birth intervals. It can be accounted for by considering the effect of external influences, such as schooling, on intellectual development.