All individuals tested in this study with sicca syndrome, a human autoimmune disease, bear two immunologically distinct and genetically unrelated B lymphocyte antigens that appear similar to the immune response associated (Ia) antigens of the mouse. The genes coding for these two antigens are present in only 37 and 24 percent of normal controls. In animal models Ia antigen genes are closely linked to immune response genes. Our findings suggest that two such genes may be required for the development of sicca syndrome.