Deproteinized skeletal muscle extracts free of major nucleotides from control and insulin-treated rats were fractionated and assayed for inhibition of protein phosphorylation by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-dependent and -independent protein kinases. A differential effect of insulin on a particular fraction was observed on cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase but not on cyclic AMP-independent protein kinases. This fraction that inhibited cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase also stimulated glycogen synthase phosphoprotein phosphatase. It is proposed that this fraction may contain a mediator substance generateed in the presence of insulin.

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