Reference: the linguistic essential

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Science  21 Nov 1980:
Vol. 210, Issue 4472, pp. 922-925
DOI: 10.1126/science.7434008


Three chimpanzees learned to label three edibles as "foods" and three inedibles as "tools". Two chimpanzees could then similarly categorize numerous objects during blind trial 1 tests when shown only objects' names. The language-like skills of the chimpanzee who failed (Lana) illustrates that apes can use symbols in ways that emulate human usage without comprehending their representational function.