A massive neuronal system was detected by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to neuropeptide Y, the recently isolated peptide of the pancreatic polypeptide family. Immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers were most prevalent in cortical, limbic, and hypothalamic regions. Neuropeptide Y was extracted in concentrations higher than those of any other peptide hitherto discovered in the mammalian brain. Column chromatography of brain extracts and double immunostaining experiments indicate that neuropeptide Y is the endogenous brain peptide responsible for immunostaining of pancreatic polypeptide-like immunoreactivity in the mammalian brain.

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