Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent mitogen with hormonal activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Material cross-reacting with EGF was detected in the central nervous system of the developing and adult albino rat by the indirect immunofluorescence technique. High concentrations of EGF-cross-reacting material were identified in forebrain and midbrain structures of pallidal areas of the brain. These include the globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, entopeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the islands of Calleja . Thus, EGF may represent another gut-brain peptide with potential neurotransmitter-neuromodulator functions in pallidal structures of the extrapyramidal motor systems of the brain.