Two of three chimpanzees given plasma from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or pre-AIDS showed serum antibodies to type III human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-III) 10 to 12 weeks after transfusion. One animal also developed lymphadenopathy, transient depression of the ratio of T4 to T8 lymphocytes, and impaired blastogenic responses. No opportunistic infections occurred. Adenopathy persisted for 32 weeks, and antibody to HTLV-III persisted for at least 48 weeks. This transmission of HTLV-III by lymphocyte-poor plasma confirms the potential risk of such plasma or plasma derivatives to recipients. The susceptibility of the chimpanzee to HTLV-III infection and the ability to simulate the human lymphadenopathy syndrome in this animal makes it a valuable model for further study of AIDS.