Low-stringency hybridization with human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) complementary DNA was used to isolate a new gene encoding a predicted 107-kilodalton polypeptide. Expression studies demonstrate its ability to bind aldosterone with high affinity and to activate gene transcription in response to aldosterone, thus establishing its identity as the human mineralocorticoid receptor (hMR). This molecule also shows high affinity for glucocorticoids and stimulates a glucocorticoid-responsive promoter. Together the hMR and hGR provide unexpected functional diversity in which hormone-binding properties, target gene interactions, and patterns of tissue-specific expression may be used in a combinatorial fashion to achieve complex physiologic control.