A human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line that was transplanted into immune-deficient SCID mice proliferated in the hematopoietic tissues, invaded various organs, and led to the death of the mice. The distribution of leukemic cells in SCID mice was similar to the course of the disease in children. A-1 cells marked with a retrovirus vector showed clonal evolution after the transplant. SCID mice that were injected with bone marrow from three patients with non-T ALL had leukemic cells in their bone marrow and spleen. This in vivo model of human leukemia is an approach to understanding leukemic growth and progression and is a novel system for testing new treatment strategies.

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