Aluminum Tolerance in Transgenic Plants by Alteration of Citrate Synthesis

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Science  06 Jun 1997:
Vol. 276, Issue 5318, pp. 1566-1568
DOI: 10.1126/science.276.5318.1566

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Aluminum when in soluble form, as found in acidic soils that comprise about 40 percent of the world’s arable land, is toxic to many crops. Organic acid excretion has been correlated with aluminum tolerance in higher plants. Overproduction of citrate was shown to result in aluminum tolerance in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and papaya (Carica papaya) plants.

  • * These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • To whom correspondence should be addressed at Departamento de Ingenierı́a Genética, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Irapuato, Apdo, Postal 629 (36500) Irapuato, Gto, México. E-mail: lherrera{at}

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