Crystal Structure of Pentalenene Synthase: Mechanistic Insights on Terpenoid Cyclization Reactions in Biology

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Science  19 Sep 1997:
Vol. 277, Issue 5333, pp. 1820-1824
DOI: 10.1126/science.277.5333.1820

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The crystal structure of pentalenene synthase at 2.6 angstrom resolution reveals critical active site features responsible for the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate into the tricyclic hydrocarbon pentalenene. Metal-triggered substrate ionization initiates catalysis, and the α-barrel active site serves as a template to channel and stabilize the conformations of reactive carbocation intermediates through a complex cyclization cascade. The core active site structure of the enzyme may be preserved among the greater family of terpenoid synthases, possibly implying divergence from a common ancestral synthase to satisfy biological requirements for increasingly diverse natural products.

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