Results from the Mars Pathfinder Camera

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Science  05 Dec 1997:
Vol. 278, Issue 5344, pp. 1758-1765
DOI: 10.1126/science.278.5344.1758


  • Figure 1

    Rose diagram showing orientations of wind tails at the Pathfinder site (dark gray), bright wind streaks seen on Viking Orbiter images of the area 60 to 90 km northeast of the site (light gray), and Mars General Circulation Model results (black arrow) for winds predicted at the site in northern winter.

  • Figure 2

    IMP image of the Rock Garden showing horizontal line (marked by white arrows) on some rocks inferred to represent former soil horizon.

  • Figure 3

    Relative reflectance spectra of Pathfinder soil types. These spectra include bright soil (BS), disturbed soil (DisS), Lamb-like soil (LS), and dark soil (DS). For comparison the spectra of Mars bright (filled circles), and dark (filled squares) regions and a Hawaiian palagonitic soil (filled diamonds) are included.

  • Figure 4

    Relative reflectance spectra of Pathfinder rock types. These spectra include pink rock (PR), bright rock (BR), and dark rock (DR). For comparison the spectra of Mars bright (filled circles) and dark (filled squares) regions and a fresh Hawaiian basalt (heavy line) are included.

  • Figure 5

    The variation of flux (w/m2/μm) with air mass (the ratio of the amount of dust along a slant path to that in the direction of the zenith) is shown for 0.45 (circles) and 0.88 (X). The variation seen is not random noise in the measurement, but real variation in the sky. The data shown are limited to the afternoon, when opacity was more stable than in the morning, and are corrected for the varying distance to the sun. The slope of the fits gives an average opacity, while the intercept gives a top of atmosphere value for flux within a filter. Given the top of atmosphere value, an extinction and therefore an opacity can be computed for any datum as τ = −ln(Flux/Flux0)/air mass.

  • Figure 6

    During the nominal mission, opacity was near 0.5. (A) Opacity at noon and later was more stable than the morning opacity (B). The wavelengths shown are 0.45 (filled circles), 0.67 (open squares), 0.88 (X), and 0.99 (+) μm. In the morning, opacities were typically higher in the blue and lowest in the red, suggesting a mode of small scatterers, such as water ice clouds, in addition to the 1-μm-sized dust aerosols.

  • Figure 7

    Sky brightness as a function of azimuth from the sun. A horizontal cut through two images taken on Pathfinder sol 12, converted to real intensity units. The two profiles, one from left of the sun and one from right of it, are overlaid to determine the solar azimuth more precisely. Plotted over the data are three models: The dashed line represents a best fit model, with an effective particle size of 1.0 μm, and a negligible scaling factor. The dotted lines represent models with particle radi too large (2.0 μm, upper peak), and too small (0.5 μm, lower peak).

  • Figure 8

    (A) Flux in three solar filters versus air mass factor. The air mass factor was computed for dust distributed with a scale height of 13 km. The exponential fits for the continuum filter L2 and the water band filters L4 and R3 are shown. Note that the water band points tend to lie at lower flux than the continuum filter points. (B) The band observations/continuum model for L4 and R3 filters are shown. Linear fits to the band/continuum ratios for the two water-band filters are shown by the short dashes (R3/L2) and long dashes (L4/L2). The average of these two determinations of band/continuum ratio versus air mass is given by the heavy solid line between the dashed lines. (C) The vertical water abundance versus air mass factor with the air mass computed assuming the water is distributed with a 13- km scale height (triangles) or with a much smaller vertical scale height (circles).

  • Figure 9

    The observed reflectance of Deimos at a phase angle of 43.4° (diamonds) has been converted into an estimated geometric albedo (triangles) by assuming an optical depth of 0.5 and a phase angle dependence of 0.033 magnitude per degree. The albedo in the range 400 to 650 nm of 0.07 to 0.09 agrees with previous measurements. Note the possible presence of an absorption band at 965 nm.


  • Table 1

    IMP panorama summary. The types of panoramas that were returned during the mission.

    NameSol obtainedMastComment
    Airbag assessment1StowedCompression 80:1
    Mission success1Stowed120° true color, high compression, full pan red stereo (6:1)
    Insurance2StowedSix filters, low compression
    Monster3DeployedTrue color middle 2 tiers, red stereo tiera (6:1)
    Gallery 8–10DeployedTrue color, 6:1
    Super13–84DeployedAll 15 filters, 2:1
  • Table 2

    Spectral unit summary; R/B, red/blue.

    Type nameType locationSpectral characteristics Interpretation
    I/F (@ 750 nm)R/B ratioKink
    Bright soilNear cradle and Yogi26 to 35%3.69 to 3.760.3 to 0.31Similar to global dust
    Dark soilPhotometry Flats, Mermaid16 to 19%2.85 to 3.00.2 to 1.16Local weathering product
    Lamb-like soilNear Lamb23%3.460.3Mixture of dust and local material
    Disturbed soilRover Tracks22 to 25%3.11 to 3.760.15 to 0.54Soil compaction changes scattering
    Dark rockBarnacle Bill, Bamm-Bamm12 to 14%2.06 to 2.110.09Fresh basalt or basaltic andesite
    Bright rockBroken Wall, Wedge19 to 24%2.80.18Weathered basalt or basaltic andesite
    Pink rockScooby Doo, Baker's Bench33 to 36%4.0 to 4.20.28 to 0.33Chemically cemented drift

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